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Rolf Loeber , David P. Van Kammen. Epidemiological surveys have provided key information about the prevalence and degree of seriousness at different ages of a wide array of problem behaviors such as delinquency, substance use, early sexual involvement, and mental health disorders. Knowledge of the extent of these problems and changes in their course over time is important.


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In its absence, interventions and health planning in general can be difficult. Understanding which risk and protective factors are relevant to which problem behaviors is also essential for the formulation of theories that constitute the basis of intervention. Volume 40 , Issue 5 July Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer.

Causes and Correlates of Delinquency

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Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? Self-Report Questionnaire SRQ : a screening questionnaire with 20 items developed to identify symptoms that may be indicative of mental disorders. The SRQ is widely used in developing countries, and it was validated in Brazil, showing good validity and high reliability. Subjects scoring above 7 points are considered to be cases [ 38 ].

Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems : Explanatory Factors in Childhood and Adolescence

The Economic Classification Questionnaire was developed by the Brazilian Association of Research Companies to determine socioeconomic classes according to family purchasing power [ 39 ]. Scoring is based on the number of home appliances, the existence of private bathrooms inside or outside the residence, the educational level of the head of the household, and number of household employees working at least 5 days a week.

Protective factors questionnaire: a brief structured questionnaire about potential protective factors for CAMHP, developed by the investigators and used in a previous epidemiological study [ 20 ].


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Each item was classified as a dichotomous variable: severe physical punishment not present or severe physical punishment present at least once; then, two 0—8 scales comprised of severe physical punishment behaviors at T1 and T2 were composed. Each item was classified in a dichotomous variable: marital severe physical violence not present or marital severe physical violence present at least once; then, two 0—7 scales were composed with marital severe physical violence behaviors at T1 and T2.

The sum of scores for the four social groups 0—4 defined social support. The sum of scores for the three types of activities 0—3 defined participation in pro-social activities.

Ep. 14. FASD - Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

A multiple linear regression was performed using the backward stepwise regression method. First, all independent variables of interest were forced to enter the initial model. All variables were checked for multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity and none of these characteristics were present. At T2, 37 At T1, the mean score for family socioeconomic status was At T2, 2.

Considering the scarcity of longitudinal data in developing countries, such as Brazil, current results add important data to the literature on CAMHP psychosocial risk factors. Cross-sectional surveys have shown that physical punishment of children is associated with CAMHP [ 40 ], but the current study demonstrates that its aggravation over time is related to the aggravation of CAMHP as time progresses.

When considering the aggravation of physical punishment of a child over time as chronic violence and its association with CAMHP, our findings are consistent with previous longitudinal data [ 41 , 42 ]. In addition, this process may have inhibited the positive influence of existing social support and pro-social activities, being one of the reasons for the lack of association between protective factors at T2 and the non-aggravation of CAMHP over time, in the current study.

In the last decade, Brazilian longitudinal studies also identified this association [ 16 , 43 ]. For instance, higher levels of depression in adolescents were showed to be related to the maternal chronic trajectory of depression in comparison to adolescents with mothers with no depression [ 44 ]. It is worth mentioning that both the psychosocial risk factors found to be associated with CAMHP in the present study have been previously reported in studies conducted in developing and developed countries. Although in this case, given the strength of the longitudinal design of the present study, the directional relationship between factors and outcomes are elucidated.

In summary, the data provided by the current study demonstrates how important it is for clinicians to consider the trajectory of risk factors over time, especially in primary care settings in low-income communities. Also, the mother-child dyad should be prioritized in mental health care settings.

When evaluating children and adolescents it is important to actively investigate physical punishment of the child and its trajectory over time. Although, a few study limitations must be recognized: a a small sample size that reduced power of statistical analysis; b sample loss of The current study presented an explanatory model for the aggravation of CAMHP from childhood to adolescence. Methods and public health burden. Am J Psychiatry.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. Ambul Pediatr. Br J Psychiatry. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.

ISBN 10: 0805829563

Developmental epidemiology. Am J Orthopsychiatry.


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Kliewer W, Murrelle L: Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance Use: findings from a study in selected Central American countries.